неделя, 20 май 2012 г.


Пенка Пейковска

БЪЛГАРСКИТЕ ОБЩНОСТИ В УНГАРИЯ ПРЕЗ ХІХ-ХХ ВЕК
Миграции и историко-демографска характеристика

Институт за исторически изследвания при БАН
София, 2011, 400 с.
ISBN 978-954-2903-07-9

  • Книгата се продава в книжарници СИЕЛА / The book is available in SIELA bookshops


Представянето на книгата ще се състои на
  • 17 май (четвъртък) 2012 г. от 18.00 ч. в Унгарския културен институт в София 
    Отзив за представянето на книгата в Будапеща от Виолет Доци/Dóci Violett във в. "Български вести. Вестник на българите в Унгария/Bolgár hírek. A magyarországi bolgárok kétnyelvű havilapja" (2012, № 11).

Монографията е посветена на българските общности в Унгария - банатските българи (до 1920 г.), българските градинари (до 1920 г.), студенти (до 1944 г.) и интелигенция (до 2000 г.). Представени са демографските им характеристики и някои социално-антропологически аспекти на тяхното развитие през ХІХ и ХХ в.: структури по пол, възраст, вероизповедание, брачност, заетост и занятие, грамотност и образование, както и тяхната идентичност, интеграция и асимилация през призмата на количествени показатели за билингвизъм, етнически хетерогенни семейства, гражданство и др. Проследени са трудовите сезонни, детски и образователни миграции на българското население между България и Унгария, вследствие на които те се формират и попълват, с цел да се направи принос към историята на движенията на населението между Балканите и Централна Европа. 

Съдържание


Предговор
1. Миграции на българско население между България и Унгария и демографско развитие на българските общности в Унгария, 1880-1910 г. 
1.1. Извори и методи на изследването 
1.2. Численост и реемиграция на банатските българи 
1.3. Численост и миграция на българските градинари-гурбетчии към Унгария 
1.4. Териториално разпределение на българските общности в Унгария 
1.5. Стуктура на българските общности в Унгария по пол, възраст и брачност 
1.6. Структура на българите в Унгария по вероизповедание 
1.7. Грамотност и двуезичие сред българските общности в Унгария 
1.8. Заключение. 
1.9. Приложение 1. Брой на населението в Унгария по матерен език български (вкл. крашованите), по българско гражданство и по месторождение в България, 1880-1910 г. 

2. Историко-демографска характеристика на българската общност в Будапеща, 1880-2001 г.
Приложение 2. Брой и относителен дял на населението на Будапеща по матерен език български, според районирането на столицата в съответната година, 1910-2001 г.

3.1. Задачи, извори и методи на изследването
3.2. Детска възраст (в унгарската демографска практика), задължително образование и правно регулиране на детския труд в Унгария и България
3.3. Детската миграция от България към Унгария според данните от преброяванията на населението в Унгария
3.4. Модели на детска миграция в светлината на личните житейски истории на българи в Унгария и на данните за месторождение на учениците от българското училище в Будапеща 
3.5. Българско държавно училище в унгарска образователна среда 
3.6. Произход на учениците от българското училище в Будапеща 
3.7. Посещаемост на българското училище в Будапеща
3.8. Пол и образование при учениците от българското училище в Будапеща
3.9. Мобилност, бедност, труд и успеваемост на учениците от българското училище в Будапеща
3.10. Изводи
3.11. Приложение 3. Регистър на учениците в Българското народно училище в Будапеща, 1917/18-1936/37 г.

4.1. Цели, извори и методи на изследването 
4.2. Унгарската образователна политика за интегриране на националностите и приемът на банатски българи в унгарски университети и висши училища 
4.3. Балканската културна политика на (Австро-)Унгария и привличането на български студенти в унгарски университети и висши училища 
4.4. Унгарската образователна политика през междувоенния период и приемът на български студенти 
4.5. Динамика на студентската миграция от България към Унгария от учебната 1918/19 до учебната 1943/44 година 
4.6. Профил на студентския миграционен поток от България към Унгария по специалности от учебната 1918/19 до учебната 1943/44 година 
4.7. Привилегиите на българските студенти в Унгария като миграционен фактор
4.8. Изходни точки на студентската миграция от България към Унгария, социален произход и кариерно развитие на мигрантите 
4.9. Заключение
4.10. Приложение 4. Регистър на българските студенти в Унгария през втората половина на ХІХ в. и първата половина на ХХ в (до учебната 1943/44 година) 
4.11. Приложение 5. Регистър на българи-ученици в средни училища в Банат, 1867-1918 г.
 
5. Демографско развитие, етническа идентичност и интеграция на българската общност в Унгария, 1920-2001 г.  
5.1. Задачи и извори на изследването 
5.2. Численост и миграции на българите в Унгария при промяната на унгарските граници през войните
5.3. Миграция на българско население към Унгария през междувоенния период в контекста на изпращаща и приемаща страна 
5.4. Териториално разпределение, структура по пол, възраст и брачност, и етническа идентичност на българската общност в Унгария през междувоенния период 
5.5. Национализацията и последната миграция на български градинари към Унгария през 50-те години 
5.6. Гражданство и идентичност сред българите в Унгария през втората половина на ХХ в. 
5.7. Промени в структурата по пол и възраст, в трудовата активност и професионалния облик на българската общност в Унгария в края на хилядолетието
5.8. Демографски показатели за етническата и културната идентичност на българите в Унгария 
5.9. Заключение.
5.10. Приложение 6. Брой на населението в Унгария по матерен език български по статистически региони и окръзи според унгарските преброявания през 1920, 1960, 1990 и 2001 г.

Извори и литература

Списък на таблиците, графиките и картите

Показалец на старите и новите названия на срещащите се в труда селища, останали извън границите на Унгария след 1920 г.

Съкращения

Összefolgalás (írta Demeter Gábor)

Summary


Печат на гр. Винга от 1744 г.
Vinga város pecsétje 1744-ből
The seal of Vinga town, 1744



Penka Peykovska

BULGARIAN COMMUNITIES IN HUNGARY IN THE 19th AND 20th CENTURIES
Migrations and Historical Demographic Review



Contents

Preface
1. Migrations of Bulgarian Population between Bulgaria and Hungary and Demographic Development of the Bulgarian Communities in Hungary, 1880-1910 г. 
1.1. Data Sources and Research Methods
1.2. The Banat Bulgarians’ Number and Re-emigration
1.3. The Bulgarian Market-GardenersNumber and Migration to Hungary 
1.4. Spatial Distribution of the Bulgarian Communities in Hungary
1.5. Sex, Age and Marriage Structure of the Bulgarian Communities in Hungary 
1.6. Confessional Structure of the Bulgarians in Hungary
1.7. Literacy and Bilinguism among the Bulgarian Communities in Hungary
1.8. Conclusions
1.9. Supplement 1. Number and Percentage of Hungary’s Population according to Bulgarian Mother Tongue, Bulgarian Citizenship and Birthplace in Bulgaria, 1880-1910.

2. Historical Demographic Review of the Bulgarian Community in Budapest, 1880-2001. 
Supplement 2. Number of Budapest’s Population according to Bulgarian Mother Tongue and the Capital’s Division into Districts in the Relevant Year, 1910-2001.

3. Child Migration from Bulgaria to Hungary, Child Labor, Gender and School Attainment among the Children of the Bulgarian Community in Budapest (to the 1940s) 
3.1. Targets, Data Sources and Research Methods 
3.2. Childhood (in the Hungarian Demographic Practice), Compulsory Education and Legal Regulation of Child Labor in Hungary and Bulgaria 
3.3. Child Migration form Bulgaria to Hungary according to Hungarian Census Data 
3.4. Child Migration Models in the Light of the Personal Life-stories of the Bulgarians in Hungary and the Birthplace Data of the Students from the Bulgarian School in Budapest 
3.5. Bulgarian State School in Hungarian Educational Milieu
3.6. Social Origin of the Students from the Bulgarian School in Budapest
3.7. Attendance of the Bulgarian School in Budapest
3.8. Gender and Education among the Students of the Bulgarian School in Budapest
3.9. Mobility, Poverty, Labor and Educational Results of the Students from the Bulgarian School in Budapest
3.10. Conclusions
3.11. Supplement 3. Register of the Students form the Bulgarian Popular School in Budapest, 1917/18-1936/37

4. Bulgarian Student Migration to Hungary in the Second Half of the 19th and the First Half of the 20th Centuries 
4.1. Targets, Data Sources and Research Methods
4.2. Hungarian Higher Education Policy Concerning the Integration of Nationalities and the Admission of Banat Bulgarians to Hungarian Universities and Institutions of Higher Education
4.3. Austria-Hungarys Cultural Policy towards the Balkans and the Attraction of Bulgarian Students to Hungarian Universities and Institutions of Higher Education
4.4. Hungarian Higher Education Policy in Interwar period and the Acceptance of Bulgarian Students 
4.5. Dynamics of Student Migration from Bulgaria to Hungary from 1918/19 to 1943/44 School-year 
4.6. Profile of the Student Migration Flow from Bulgaria to Hungary according to Subjects from 1918/19 to 1943/44 School-year 
4.7. The Allowances of the Bulgarian Students in Hungary as a Migration Push-Factor 
4.8. Points of Departure of the Student Migration from Bulgaria to Hungary, MigrantsSocial Origin and Career-Building 
4.9. Conclusions
4.10. Supplement 4. Register of the Bulgarian Students in Hungary in the Second Half of the 19th and the First Half of the 20th Centuries (to the School-year of 1943/44) 
4.11. Supplement 5. Register of Bulgarians – Students at Secondary Schools in Banat, 1867-1918 

5. Demographic Development, Ethnic Identity and Integration of the Bulgarians in Hungary, 1920-1990 г. 
5.1. Targets and Data Sources
5.2. Bulgarians’ Number and Migration to Hungary when changing the Hungarian Borders during the Wars 
5.3. Bulgarian Population’s Migration to Hungary in the Interwar Period in the Context of Recipient and Original Country 
5.4. Spatial Distribution, Sex, Age and Marriage Structure, and Ethnic Identity of the Bulgarian Community in Hungary in the Interwar Period 
5.5. Nationalisation and Bulgarian Market-Gardeners Last Migration to Hungary in the 1950s 
5.6. Citizenship and Identity among the Bulgarians in Hungary in the Second Half of the 20th Century 
5.7. Changes in the Sex and Age Structure, Labor Activity and Professional Image of the Bulgarian Community in Hungary at the End of the Millennium
5.8. Demographic Indicators of the Ethnic and Cultural Identity of the Bulgarians in Hungary 
5.9. Conclusions
5.10. Supplement 6. Number of Hungary’s Population according to Bulgarian Mother Tongue, Statistical Regions and Districts in the Hungarian Censuses of 1920, 1960, 1990 and 2001 
Data Sources and Literature
List of Tables, Charts and Maps 
Index of the Old and New Names of the Settlements Occurring in the Book that Remained Outside Hungary after 1920 
Abbreviations
Summary in Hungarian (by Gábor Demeter) 
Summary in English 

Summary 

  • The monograph is dedicated to the Bulgarian communities in Hungary - the Banat Bulgarians (until 1920), the Bulgarian market-gardeners (until 1960), the Bulgarian students (until 1944) and intellectuals (until 2000). It presents their demographic characteristics and some socio-anthropological aspects of their development in the 19th and 20th centuries: stuctures of sex, age, religion, marriage, labor activity and occupation, literacy and education, as well as their identity, integration and assimilation in the light of quantitative indicators of bilinguism, ethnically heterogeneous families, citizenship etc. Bulgarian population's seasonal labor, child and educational migrations between Hungary and Bulgaria are examined to make a contribution to the history of population movements between the Balkans and Central Europe.  
   
The present monograph examines the migrations of Bulgarian population between Bulgaria and Hungary and the demographic development of the Bulgarian communities in Hungary in the 19th and 20th centuries. Subjects of research are:
* The community of the Bulgarian orthodox market-gardeners, which came into birth as a result of workers’ (“gurbetchija-s”) seasonal labor migration to Hungary, whose first traces were to be found in the second quarter of the 19th century and which became more intense in the second half of the 19th Century.
* The community of the Banat Bulgarians, located within the boundaries of Hungary until 1920. In the examined period it was already a reality with centuries of history. It appeared as a consequence of political migration of Roman Catholic refugees after the unsuccessful  anti-Ottoman Chiprovtsi uprising at the end of the 17th century and was formed after several-decade migrations throughout the Austrian Empire until their final settlement in the Banat region in the late 1730s and early 1740s century.
* The community of Bulgarian students in Hungary, which is a relatively new phenomenon: it marks its beginning at the end of World War I, although the archival sources contain evidences of individual educational migration of Bulgarian youth from the second quarter of the 19th century.
The data base of the research - mostly Hungarian statistical sources has not been previously interpreted in historical science. Among the archival sources first to be mentioned are the Hungarian population censuses. They are 14 in number by 2001 having carried out every ten years since 1869 onwards. There is statistical data on the Bulgarians in ten of them (1880, 1890, 1900, 1910, 1920, 1930, 1941, 1960, 1990 and 2001); all contain data on population according to mother tongue Bulgarian, which was perceived as the main marker of nationality in the Hungarian part of the multinational Austro-Hungarian Empire. The migrations and demographic status of the Bulgarian communities are described by analyzing the data on mother tongue Bulgarian, Bulgarian citizenship and nationality in correlations with age, religion, marriage, literacy, occupation, bilingualism and within them according to sex and including the three levels, which they were summarized at - settlement, county and district. Unfortunately, current, annual statistics on population by mother tongue Bulgarian and Bulgarian citizenship, which allows to make the dynamics of the processes between two censuses more precise, is available only concerning the capital Budapest. Among the other sources analyzed of more special interest are the registers of the Budapest higher schools and universities and the already closed Bulgarian school in Budapest, the records of the Bulgarian Legation in Budapest and the Hungarian Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
The first chapter deals with the migrations of the Bulgarian population between Bulgaria and Hungary in the second half of the 19th and the first two decades of the 20th century, focusing on the period of 1880-1910. By analyzing the data from the Hungarian population censuses of 1880, 1890, 1900 and 1910 are outlined the destinations of the migration flows and the spatial distribution of the Bulgarian communities in Hungary. The re-emigration of the Banat Bulgarians is represented by a quantitative analysis of the statistical data from the Bulgarian census of 1900. The Banat Bulgarians’ community is separated from the other Bulgarians on the basis of the feature of Bulgarian mother tongue and the Roman Catholic confession; the krassovans, whose Bulgarian origin is debatable and who already have other cultural characteristics, have been deducted. A historical-demographic review (by sex, age, marriage, religion, literacy, knowledge of Hungarian language) of the two Bulgarian communities is performed. Their demographic profile and cultural development are discussed in comparative terms with each other and with the indicators specific for Hungary and Bulgaria, and related to the Banat Bulgarians – from a regional point of view too.
The second chapter describes the 1880-2001 dynamics of the demographic situation of the most numerous local Bulgarian market-gardening community in Hungary – the Budapest one. It reveals its size, characteristics by sex and age, marriage, occupation, educational status. The historical sources of the study are the Hungarian censuses of 1880-1920, 1960, 1990 and 2001. The process of settlement of the Bulgarian market-gardeners in Hungary is discussed on the example of the Budapest Bulgarian community because we have annual indicators for its quantity and dynamics only pertaining Hungary’s capital and they come from the Budapest Statistical Yearbook.
The ancestors of today’s Bulgarians started coming to Hungary in the mid-19th century from the region of Veliko Tarnovo, Gorna Oryahovica, Lyaskovec, Polikraishte and Draganovo. They dealt with intensive market gardening around the big cities and also played an important role as mer­chants. Before 1945 most of the Bulgarian market-gardeners were men and they spent only the summer months in Hungary. In winter they returned to their families. The greatest number of migrant workers were present in Hungary in the Interwar years. After World War II the period of seasonal gardening work came to an end and they decided to settle permanently in Hungary. Some of the today’s Bulgarians are there with only a permanent residence permit while others have taken Hungarian citizenship. The majority of Bulgarians today live in Budapest and its agglomeration. In the early 20th century the Hungarian and Bulgarian authorities mutually supported market-gardening by Bulgarians in Hungary. The Hungarian side also officially encouraged the spread of the Bulgarian vegetable production method. In the late 19th Century the majority of the Bulgarians living in Hungary belonged to the Uniate (Greek Catholic) and Catholic church, while those who migrated to Hungary in the 20th century were members of the Orthodox church. The study then shows the proportion of Bulgarians owning homes and land, gives quantified data on the level of schooling and the age distribution. Finally, it concludes that despite being scattered and few in number, the Bulgarians in Hun­gary have been able to preserve their national identity.
In the third chapter the author discusses the problem of the late 19th-century and early 20th-century child migration within the Bulgarian market-gardeners’ seasonal labor migration flow to Hungary, the way school attendance and education (primary and secondary) of the Budapest Bulgarian community’s children was influenced by child mobility and child labor. The foundation of the Bulgarian school in Budapest in 1918 was connected with the increase of Bulgarian market-gardeners’ diaspora in Hungary and in the capital Budapest, and with Bulgarians in Hungary’s striving to preserve their cultural identity. The text carries out a social-anthropological analysis of the Bulgarian primary and high school in Budapest on the basis of the evidence from the school registers, which were preserved at the school and some autobiographical and personal life stories. Closer attention is paid to the models of children’s migration, the social origin of its graduates, the dynamics and quantity parameters of school attendance, students’ mobility, and - finally, the efficiency of school’s educational activity. Due to its dispersion across a large territory in the Interwar period, the Bulgarian community in Hungary was naturally disposed to processes of integration and assimilation. These did not actually take place, however, because of the relative closedness and conservatism of the Bulgarian market-gardeners’ society, which constituted the main part of the Bulgarian diaspora in Hungary. Among the other reasons are its affinity to preserve its own cultural traditions, its constant enlargement through the joining of new market-gardeners who settled in the country, and its incessant connection with the Bulgarian motherland. A higher level of compactness is observable among the largest Bulgarian community in Hungary - the one in the capital of Budapest. It is exposed, however, to more “integration” challenges, that is why it created for the first Budapest-born Bulgarian generation such an ethnostablizing factor, as the Bulgarian school there.
The fourth chapter focuses on the student migration from Bulgaria to Hungary and the Bulgarian students coming from the Banat region to study at Hungarian universities and higher education institutions in the second half of 19th and first half of 20th centuries (to 1943/44 school year). Subjects of the study are their opportuni­ties to access education in Hungary, to get financial support from the Bulgarian state. The dynamics of the attendance of Hungarian universities and higher educa­tion institutions by Bulgarians and the factors that affected it are analyzed on the base of 409 (93 women and 316 men) students’ personal data; the Bulgarian student community in Hungary’s quantitative profile is described according to the subjects they studied, proportion of graduates and those who interrupted their studies, students’ social backgrounds.
Sources of information are the registers of those universities in Budapest, which were widely attended by Bulgarians such as: the University of Technology and Economics (at that time, the Polytechnics), the Loránd Eötvös University (at that time, Péter Pázmány University), the Semmelweis University of Medicine (at that time Medical Faculty of Péter Pázmány University (to 2000 Medical University; in 2000 it was connected to the University for Physical Education), Szent István University in Gödöllő (formed in 2000 by the merger of the University of Veterinary Medicine, Agricultural University in Gödöllő. University of Horticulture and Food Industry, etc.), Corvinus University (from 1920 Faculty of  Economics at Péter Pázmány University and from 1934 Faculty at the Polytechnics; until 2000 Budapest University of Economics) and the prestigious Eötvös Collegium, established in 1895 modeled on the Paris Higher Pedagogical Institute. Additional sources of information, especially concerning the Hungarian provincial universi­ties, are the documentary heritage of the Bulgarian Legation in Budapest and students’ personal records (recollections, diaries, correspondence etc.).
Statistics from population censuses are a kind of quantitative measure of the actual ethnic processes within a community and the information they contain, reveals the “outside” of the major trends occurring inside it as a result of profound social, economic, political or cultural changes. In this regard, the fifth chapter examines the impact of the 20th-century wars on the movement of the Bulgarian population in Hungary, the dynamics of migration flows from Bulgaria to Hungary, the spatial distribution of the Bulgarian community in Hungary, its demographic development (including its structures of sex, age, marriage, education, occupation) after World War I until the end of the second millennium. The author searches for the interrelationship between the demographic processes within the Bulgarian community in Hungary and its ethnic state; analyzes the quantitative indicators of Bulgarians who adopted Hungarian citizenship, of children, educated in heterogeneous Bulgarian-Hungarian families, of bilingualism, to determine the degree of preservation of Bulgarians in Hungary’s ethnic and national identity and the undergoing processes of integration and natural assimilation among them.
The ethnic identity of the Bulgarian community in Hungary is a dynamic feature, influenced by the particular conditions of its existence, by its interethnic relations with the dominant Hungarian ethnic group and other smaller ethnic groups which it coexisted with. The period of 1920-2001 is the time when it was formed as a community and minority, when compared to the previous period, it was not so numerous and remained strongly scattered in urban and suburban areas - factors generally less favorable for the preservation of ethnic identity. But on the other hand, it was not subjected to assimilation of the host country; just the opposite, it enjoyed a very good reception, favor and assistance on its part, achieved not only through goodwill but also, observing the principle of reciprocity in bilateral diplomatic relations with regard to the welfare of the Hungarian community in Bulgaria (though significantly fewer in number than the Bulgarian one in Hungary). Furthermore, the Bulgarian community in Hungary received support from the home state of Bulgaria, which helped set up its cultural institutions, especially the school and church, sending teachers and priests from the homeland.
In the Interwar period, it was naturally predisposed to integration processes, because it still consisted mainly of young unmarried men, some of which created heterogeneous families in Hungary - Bulgaria and Hungary, in rare cases, the Bulgarian-Serbian. At that time the resistance of the Bulgarians in Hungary’s ethnic identity was due to:
the continuous replenishment of the community with Bulgarian ethnic element (market-gardeners) coming from Bulgaria and partly from Macedonia, but also through, albeit temporary, Bulgarian market-gardeners’ inflow from the Hungarian territories annexed during World War II;
the formation of its compact core in the capital Budapest by gradually concentrating there the greater part of the community;
the fact that the market-gardeners as bearers of the traditional Bulgarian values such as patriarchal spirit and conservatism, created primarily homogeneous Bulgarian families;
their labor organization, which helped preserve the Bulgarian tradition, since the organization of labor and family-based gardens functioned in the Hungarian environment as a closed, temporary labor and domestic system;
the timely realization and implementation through charitable acts of the need to establish their cultural and religious institutions in order to keep, the Bulgarian language alive, to transmit the Bulgarian history and traditions to the generations born there and bring up them in the spirit of homeland patriotism and loyalty to the receiving country.
The changes in the nature of the immigration process turning to individual immigration through intermarriage after World War II, the trend towards an aging within the whole community and especially within the female population in fertile age, the changes in occupational structure, the decline of horticulture and patriarchal society, the growth of the intelligentsia, accompanied by the creation of increasingly heterogeneous Bulgarian-Hungarian families, created conditions for the progress of integration and natural assimilation processes.
Among the new ethnostabilizing factors that kept these processes in the last decades of the 20th century were: the Bulgarian Cultural House (built in 1957), the Bulgarian dance ensembles “Martenitsa” (1982) and “Yantra” (1996), the folk group “Zornitsa” (2000), the theatre “Malko Teatro” (1996), the Research Institute for Bulgarians in Hungary (1996), the Association of Bulgarian Culture in Hungary named “Bulgarian Cultural Forum” (1999), the foundations ofPro Culture Bulgarica” (1992) andPro Schola Bulgarica” (1994), Bulgarian Youth Society (1998), the “Haemus” magazine  (1991, edited in both Bulgarian and Hungarian language), the “Bulgarian newspaper” (1996, monthly in Bulgarian), the “Bulgarian Cultural Forum” (2000).